Seasons of Change: Labor, Treaty Rights, and Ojibwe Nationhood

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Anishinaabe Culture-- 3. Hunting, Fishing, and Violating-- 4. The War Begins-- 5. The War Within-- 6. Spearing in the Four Directions-- 7. Anishinaabe Summer-- 8. The bands reserved hunting, fishing, and gathering rights on the lands that would become the northern third of Wisconsin in treaties signed with the federal government in , , and Those rights, however, would be ignored by the state of Wisconsin for more than a century. When a federal appeals court in upheld the bands' off-reservation rights, a deep and far-reaching conflict erupted between the Ojibwe bands and some of their non-Native neighbors.

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Starting in the mids, protesters and supporters flocked to the boat landings of lakes being spearfished; Ojibwe spearfisher-men were threatened, stoned, and shot at. Peace and protest rallies, marches, and ceremonies galvanized and rocked the local communities and reservations, and individuals and organizations from across the country poured into northern Wisconsin to take sides in the spearfishing dispute.

From the front lines on lakes to tense, behind-the-scenes maneuvering on and off reservations, The Walleye War tells the riveting story of the spearfishing conflict, drawing on the experiences and perspectives of the members of the Lac du Flambeau reservation and an anthropologist who accompanied them on spearfishing expeditions.

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We learn of the historical roots and cultural significance of spearfishing and off-reservation treaty rights and we see why many modern Ojibwes and non-Natives view them in profoundly different ways. We also come to understand why the Flambeau tribal council and some tribal members disagreed with the spearfishermen and pursued a policy of negotiation with the state to lease the off-reservation treaty rights for fifty million dollars.

Fought with rocks and metaphors, The Walleye War is the story of a Native people's struggle for dignity, identity, and self-preservation in the modern world. Seller Rating:.

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Seasons of Change: Labor, Treaty Rights, and Ojibwe Nationhood (First Peoples: New Directions in Indigenous Studies) [Chantal Norrgard] on Seasons of Change: Labor, Treaty Rights, and Ojibwe Nationhood (First Peoples: New Directions in Indigenous Studies) 1st edition by Norrgard, Chantal ().

About this Item: Copenhagen :. IWGIA, IWGIA document, English text. Very good copy.

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Never used!. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. About this Item: Settling with Indigenous People describes the making of ten contemporary, mostly Australian, local and regional agreements and details the avenues through which such agreements can be impl. Shipping may be from multiple locations in the US or from the UK, depending on stock availability. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Satisfaction Guaranteed! Book is in Used-Good condition. Pages and cover are clean and intact.

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They did so in the face of extreme local and regional discontent among sports fishermen and resort owners opposed to Ojibwe spearfishing, an opposition that erupted into violent attacks against the Ojibwe. This movement sought to inform the broader public about treaty rights and to correct misconceptions about the impacts of spearfishing on the walleye population. This kind of confusion about and misperception of treaty rights is hardly restricted to fishing and hunting. These distinct political and legal rights are grounded in sovereignty. Yet sovereignty is usually misunderstood.

The courts and Congress have only added to this confusion, for they have taken inconsistent, seemingly contradictory positions on the sovereign authority of Indigenous nations, often while simultaneously bolstering U. I ndigenous nations exercised sovereign authority long before European arrival. Indigenous political and legal traditions regulated internal matters and established and renewed political, social, and economic alliances with other Indigenous nations.

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Indigenous nations continued these practices with European nations, establishing new alliances while seeking to protect their lands and resources. The United States followed the traditions of their European predecessors, entering into over four hundred treaties with Indigenous nations, over half of which remain in legal force today. Shifting federal Indian policies and law, however, have complicated the ways in which Indigenous nations are able to exercise sovereignty.

Indigenous resistance took many forms. Nations blocked access to their territories, taxed and fined trespassers, and called for the government to re negotiate treaties. Indigenous leaders simultaneously pursued U. For example, the Cherokee Nation sought an injunction against the state of Georgia for violating U. Chief Justice John Marshall determined that the Court had no jurisdiction under Article III of the Constitution, arguing that tribes were neither states nor foreign nations. One year after Cherokee Nation v. While seemingly contradicting his opinion of one year earlier, the distinction in his framing of Indigenous political status spoke more to his concerns about federalism than it did to his views of the sovereign authority of Indigenous nations.

Federal supremacy was key to keeping his landmark Indian title case, Johnson v. McIntosh , intact. In this framing, U. Marshall was clear to note that U. In the case Worcester v. Georgia , Marshall turned his attention to the assertion of federal supremacy over the states, reminding the states that they had no authority over Indigenous lands and peoples and that the U. He also used this moment to expand on his earlier decisions, in many ways to qualify the powers acquired by European nations under the doctrine of discovery. He also sought to clarify the powers Indigenous nations retained, despite having placed themselves under the protection of the United States.

He noted that the political authority of Indigenous nations was not impaired by the fact that they had placed themselves under such protection. In his efforts to bolster and solidify U.

These landmark cases became the foundation of the tribal sovereignty doctrine. This doctrine is further complicated by the twin doctrines of plenary power detailed below and trust , which have been employed by the United States to superintend the welfare of Indigenous peoples, with often devastating results for Indigenous nations in their exercise of sovereignty. These distinct and sometimes contradictory doctrines create a quagmire of federal Indian law that provides little clarity in efforts to understand Indigenous sovereignty.

S overeignty is the most critical force animating a nation.

However, the concept of sovereignty is difficult to define, both in the wake of shifting U. It is nearly impossible today to envision a nation whose sovereignty is not limited by its relationships and responsibilities, both internally to its own citizens and externally to its diplomatic allies.

Further, our understandings of sovereignty have been transformed and reoriented by the changing conditions and characteristics of the nations that have employed the term. It is contested between American Indians and the U. It should therefore come as no surprise that sovereignty is also contested among Indigenous scholars and activists. The term began to dominate Indigenous political discourse in the mids and has remained prevalent and powerful. But sovereignty is not without Indigenous critique: some scholars question the use of the term altogether. Controlling, universalizing, and assimilating, these fictions have been imposed in the form of law on weakened but resistant and remembering peoples.

Though the United States continued to sign executive agreements with Indigenous nations into the early twentieth century, Congress effectively brought an end to treaty-making with tribes in , making a significant shift away from negotiation to unilateral imposition of legislation and administrative oversight. By the s, Congress aggressively moved to assimilate Indigenous peoples — to transform them and thus disappear their sovereignty.

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Allotment policies privatized Indigenous communal land holdings, resulting in an additional loss of 90 million acres of land.